1456 – A second trial was held for Joan of Arc, 25 years after she was executed. Her mother convinced the inquisitor, who convinced the Pope to allow it. At this trial, she was acquitted of heresy, and in fact the then-current inquisitor applied a charge of heresy to the former inquisitor, who convicted Joan. The new charge claimed that the old inquisitor used a trivial clothing law to convict her when really he was executing a secular vendetta. Joan of Arc was acquitted, and became a saint in 1920.
1834 – Riots began in New York against abolitionists and the abolition movement. They went on for four days.
1863 – The United States held their first ever military draft during the Civil War. The rich could get an exemption, but it cost $300. Later the same month there were huge draft riots in New York. (But I’ll get to them next week).
1928 – The Chillicothe Baking Company of Missouri sold sliced bread for the first time. The inventor of sliced bread, Otto Frederick Rohwedder, turned 48 the same day.
1946 – The first American saint was canonized – Mother Francesca Cabrini.
1099 – During the First Crusade the Christian soldiers marched around Jerusalem in a religious procession.
1663 – King Charles II of England granted John Clarke’s request for a royal charter to found a new colony. That colony was Rhode Island.
1853 – American sailor Commodore Matthew Perry sailed to Japan. He brought a treaty requesting the opening of trade with Japan.
1970 – President Richard Nixon delivered a speech to congress outlining the new official policy of the United States government on Native Americans: self-determination. This led to a law in 1975.
1540 – The Church of England annulled Henry VIII’s marriage to Anne of Cleves.
1816 – Argentina declared its independence from Spain.
1850 – President Zachary Taylor died. Some people think he was assassinated by poison. He was succeeded by Millard Fillmore.
1868 – The United States ratified the Fourteenth Amendment, which guaranteed full citizenship to all African Americans, and the right to vote to male African Americans. It also guaranteed due process, a major part of American law.
2011 – South Sudan became an independent nation. They separated from Sudan.
988 – The Norse King, Glúniarin, came to an arrangement with the High King of Ireland, Máel Sechnaill II, which founded the city of Dublin. Glúniarin also agreed to pay taxes to Mael Sechnaill and follow Irish law. (At the time called Brehon Law).
1553 – Lady Jane Grey became, for nine days, queen of England. She is often considered so inconsequential that she is left off lists of English monarchs.
1584 – William I of Orange was assassinated in Holland.
1778 – The French King Louis XVI declared war on England in support of the American Revolution.
1921 – Belfast Bloody Sunday. In Belfast there was mass rioting in support of Irish independence from Britain. The rioting was met with enormous violence by British forces. Ten people died that day, and in the next few days another 6 were killed. This was one of the only instances in which there was out and out fighting between the IRA and the British forces. The more familiar Bloody Sunday was in 1972.
1740 – A pogrom forced Jews from Little Russia.
1804 – Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton dueled, and Hamilton was fatally wounded.
1864 – The Battle of Fort Stevens was fought in the Civil War. Confederate soldiers tried to capture Washington DC, but they were rebuffed.
1921 – William Howard Taft, 27th president, became Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court.
1960 – Harper Lee published To Kill A Mockingbird.
1543 – King Henry VIII of England married Catherine Parr, his final wife.
1804 – Alexander Hamilton died of wounds inflicted by Aaron Burr in the previous day’s duel.
1806 – Liechtenstein became an independent nation, following the Confederation of the Rhine.
1812 – The United States invaded Canada as part of the War of 1812.
1962 – The Rolling Stones performed their first concert, at the Marquee Club in London.